Research, theory, design & methods

  

Week 6: Research, Theory, Design & methods. 

Week 6: Quantitative Research Designs, Continued

1. No discussion about quantitative research design would be complete without mention of validity and reliability. Most broadly, validity refers to meaningfulness and reliability refers to consistency. Together, validity and reliability serve as the foundation for sound scientific inquiry. When quantitative researchers design and implement their research, they do so to identify valid and reliable descriptions, relationships, and/or predictions.

This week, you will consider the threats to validity in quantitative research and explore strategies to mitigate these threats. You will also consider the ethical issues in quantitative research, the implications these issues have on design decisions, and the strategies used to address them. You will also annotate a quantitative journal article on a research topic of your interest.

Learning Objectives

Students will:

· Explain threats to internal validity and external validity in quantitative research

· Explain strategies to mitigate threats to internal validity and external validity in quantitative research

· Identify ethical issues in quantitative research

· Explain how ethical issues influence design decisions in quantitative research

· Explain criteria for a research topic to be amenable to scientific study using a quantitative approach

· Apply strategies for addressing ethical issues in quantitative research

· Annotate a quantitative research article

· Apply APA Style to writing 

Learning Resources

Required Readings

· Babbie, E. (2017) Basics of social research (7th ed.). Boston, MA: Cengage Learning. Chapter 3, “The Ethics and Politics of Social Research”.

· Burkholder, G. J., Cox, K. A., & Crawford, L. M. (2016). The scholar-practitioner’s guide to research design. Baltimore, MD: Laureate Publishing. Chapter 7. “Quality Considerations” 

· Document: Threats to internal Validity (PDF)

· Walden University: Center for Research Quality (2018). Research ethics & compliance: Documents and FAQs. Retrieved from https://academicguides.waldenu.edu/researchcenter/orec/documents

· Download the “Research Ethics Planning Worksheet”. Read this document to understand the ethical standards that researchers must address during the research planning process.

· Walden University: Center for Research Quality. (2015c). Research resources: Research planning & writing. Retrieved fromhttp://academicguides.waldenu.edu/researchcenter/resources/planning 

Download the “Litmus Test” document.

· Walden University. (2015a). How do I find an article that reports on research that uses a specific methodology? Retrieved from http://academicanswers.waldenu.edu/faq/72633 

· Walden University Writing Center. (2015). Common course assignments: Annotated bibliographies. Retrieved from http://academicguides.waldenu.edu/writingcenter/assignments/annotatedbibliographies 

Required Media

· Gjellstad, L. (nd). IRB Form for Ethics Review at Walden [online tutorial]. Retrieved from https://crq.adobeconnect.com/pz08vcneze53

· Price, S. (2015). Annotated bibliographies [Online webinar]. Retrieved from https://waldencss.adobeconnect.com/p7d6uqxv8g3?launcher=false&fcsContent=true&pbMode=normal 

Discussion Part 

Discussion: Designing Quantitative Research

Researchers consider validity and reliability with each new study they design. This is because validity and reliability are not fixed but rather reflect a particular study’s unique variables, research design, instruments, and participants.

In the context of research design, two types of validity, which speak to the quality of different features of the research process, are considered: internal validity and external validity. Assuming that the findings of a research study are internally valid—i.e., the researcher has used controls to determine that the outcome is indeed due to manipulation of the independent variable or the treatment—external validity refers to the extent to which the findings can be generalized from the sample to the population or to other settings and groups. Reliability refers to the replicability of the findings.

· For this Discussion, you will consider threats to internal and external validity in quantitative research and the strategies used to mitigate these threats. You will also consider the ethical implications of designing quantitative research.

With these thoughts in mind:(2-3 pages)

By Day 4

· Post an explanation of a threat to internal validity and a threat to external validity in quantitative research. Next, explain a strategy to mitigate each of these threats. Then, identify a potential ethical issue in quantitative research and explain how it might influence design decisions. Finally, explain what it means for a research topic to be amenable to scientific study using a quantitative approach.

· Be sure to support your Main Issue Post and Response Post with reference to the week’s Learning Resources and other scholarly evidence in APA Style.

Read a selection of your class By Day 6

Respond to a classmate by offering a strategy to address the ethical issue she or he identified.

Submission and Grading Information

Grading Criteria: To assess your rubric 

Week 6 Discussion Rubric: Post by day 4 and Respond by Day 6

To participate in this Discussion: Week 6 to participate in week 6 postings. 

Assignment Part (2-5 pages)

Assignment: Annotation of a Quantitative Research Article

1. Submit: Annotation of a Quantitative Research Article

· This week, you will submit the annotation of a quantitative research article on a topic of your interest. Quasi-experimental, casual comparative, correlational, pretest–posttest, or true experimental are examples of types of research designs used in quantitative research.

An annotation consists of three separate paragraphs that cover three respective components: summary, analysis, and application. These three components convey the relevance and value of the source. As such, an annotation demonstrates your critical thinking about, and authority on, the source. This week’s annotation is a precursor to the annotated bibliography assignment due in Week 10.

An annotated bibliography is a document containing selected sources accompanied by a respective annotation of each source. In preparation for your own future research, an annotated bibliography provides a background for understanding a portion of the existing literature on a particular topic. It is also a useful first step in gathering sources in preparation for writing a subsequent literature review as part of a dissertation.

Please review the assignment instructions below and click on the underlined words for information about how to craft each component of an annotation.

It is recommended that you use the grading rubric as a self-evaluation tool before submitting your assignment. 

By Day 7

· Use the Walden library databases to search for one quantitative research article from a peer-reviewed journal on a topic of your interest.

· Before you read the full article and begin your annotation, locate the methodology section in the article to be sure that the article describes a quantitative study. Confirm that one of the types of quantitative designs, such as quasi-experimental, casual comparative, correlational, pretest–posttest, or true experimental, was used in the study.

· Annotate one quantitative research article from a peer-reviewed journal on a topic of your interest.

· Provide the reference list entry for this article in APA Style followed by a three-paragraph annotation that includes:

· A summary

· An analysis

· An application as illustrated in this example

· Format your annotation in Times New Roman, 12-point font, double-spaced. A separate References list page is not needed for this assignment.

· Submit your annotation. 

Submission and Grading Information

To submit your completed Assignment for review and grading, do the following:

· Please save your Assignment using the naming convention “WK6Assgn+last name+first initial.(extension)” as the name.

· Click the Week 6 Assignment Rubric to review the Grading Criteria for the Assignment.

· Click the Week 6 Assignment link. You will also be able to “View Rubric” for grading criteria from this area.

· Next, from the Attach File area, click on the Browse My Computer button. Find the document you saved as “WK6Assgn+last name+first initial.(extension)” and click Open.

· If applicable: From the Plagiarism Tools area, click the checkbox for I agree to submit my paper(s) to the Global Reference Database.

· Click on the Submit button to complete your submission.

Grading Criteria

To access your rubric: Week 6 Assignment rubric

Check your assignment draft for authenticity

Check Your Assignment Draft for Authenticity

To check your Assignment draft for authenticity:

Submit your Week 6 Assignment draft and review the originality report. 

Submit Your Assignment by Day 7: To submit your assignment

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