Describe & discuss these ethical concepts logical, factual and

Write a one page paper (double spaced) describing and discussing the following ethical concepts found in chapter 1; logical, factual and normative. You may use definitions or scenarios in your writing. The goal of this paper is to gain a level of understanding of all three (logical, factual and normative).


Logical,  or  formal,  statements
 are  definitions  or  statements  derivable  from  
definitions, including the entirety of mathematical discourse (e.g., “2
or “A square has four equal sides”). Such statements can be
verified by a for

mal  procedure
 (“recourse  to  arithmetic”)  derived  from  the  same  definitions  
that control the rest of the terms of the field in question (i.e., the same axioms
define “2,” “4,” and the procedure of “addition”; the four equal sides and right
angles define the “square”). True formal statements are
they are true
logically,  necessarily,  or  by  the  definitions  of  the  terms
.  False  statements  in  
this category are
. (If you say, “2
5,” or start talking
about  “round  squares,”  you  contradict  yourself,  for  you  assert  that  which  can-
not  possibly  be  so—you  conjoin  ideas  that  are  incompatible).  A  logically  true  
or  logically  valid  statement  can  never  be  false,  or  disproved  by  any  discovery  
of facts; it will never be the case that some particular pairs of 2 do not add up
to 4, or some particular squares turn out to be circular—and if you think you’ve
found  such  a  case,  you’re  wrong!  “2  
 4”  is  true,  and  squares  are  equi-
lateral  rectangles,  as  philosophers  like  to  say,  
in  all  possible  worlds
.  For  this  
reason we say that these statements are “
true a priori
”: we can know them to
be correct prior to any examination of the facts of the world, without having to
count up lots of pairs of pairs, just to make sure that 2
2 really equals 4.
Factual, or empirical, statements
are assertions about the world out there, the
physical  environment  of  our  existence,  including  the  entirety  of  scientific  dis-
course, from theoretical physics to sociology. Such statements are
verifiable by
controlled  observation
 (“recourse  to  measurement,”  “recourse  to  weighing”)  
of  that  world,  by  experiment  or  just  by  careful  looking,  listening,  touching,  
smelling, or tasting. This is the world of our senses, the world of space, objects,
time  and  causation.  These  empirical  statements  are  called  
 for  they  
“put  together”  in  a  new  combination  two  ideas  that  do  not  initially  include  or  
entail  each  other.  As  a  result  they  cannot  be  known  a  priori,  but  can  be  deter

mined only
a posteriori, that is, after investigation of the world
. When they
are true, they are
true only contingently, or dependently, as opposed to nec-
 their  truth  is  contingent  upon,  or  depends  on,  the  situation  in  which  
they  are  uttered.  (As  I  write  this,  the  statement  “it  is  raining  out”  is  true,  and  
has been all day. The weatherman tells me that tomorrow that statement will be
false.  The  statement  “2  + 2  =4,”  like  the  rectangularity  of  squares,  does  not flick in and out of truth like that).
Normative  statements  are  assertions  about  what  is  right,  what  is  good,  or  
what  should  be  done.We  know  these  statements  as  value  judgments,  pre-
scriptions  and  proscriptions,  commands  and  exhortations  to  do  or  forbear.  
There is no easy way of assigning truth value to these statements. The cri-
teria  of  “truth”  that  apply  to  formal  and  factual  statements  do  not  apply  

5 to  normative  statements. This  is  why,  when  we  disagree  about  them,  we  
become “hostile,” and “lose our temper” at each other; there is no easy way to
resolve the dispute. We can certainly say of such judgments (formally) that they
conform  or  fail  to  conform  with  other  moral  judgments,  or  with  more  general  
and  widely  accepted  moral  principles.  We  can  also  say  (empirically)  that  they  
receive  or  fail  to  receive  our  assent  as  a  society,  as  compatible  or  incompat-
ible  with  our  basic  intuitions  of  what  is  just  or  right  (as  determined  by  a  poll  
or survey). We may also say that a judgment succeeds or fails as a policy rec-
ommendation on some accepted pattern of moral reasoning, like adducing con-
sequences  of  that  judgment  and  estimating  how  human  wants  will  be  affected  
should it become law (see the section on Moral Reasoning, below). But the cer

tainties of math and science are forever beyond the grasp of any normative sys-
tem, which is, possibly, as it should be.

Get 20% Discount on This Paper
Pages (550 words)
Approximate price: -

Try it now!

Get 20% Discount on This Paper

We'll send you the first draft for approval by at
Total price:

How it works?

Follow these simple steps to get your paper done

Place your order

Fill in the order form and provide all details of your assignment.

Proceed with the payment

Choose the payment system that suits you most.

Receive the final file

Once your paper is ready, we will email it to you.

Our Services

Custom Writings Help is a Quality-Oriented Company in Online Writing as a result of hiring exceptional professionals to execute clients' tasks.


Research Papers

At Custom Writings Help,We understand the struggle of research paper writing, and that is why at Custom WritingS Help, we are all out to help you. We pride ourselves on having a team of clinical writers. The stringent and rigorous vetting process ensures that only the 'BEST' Writers are chosen for the job. We have highly qualified Ph.D. and MA writers working with us; we equally offer these experienced writers specific bonuses and incentives to make them deliver highly original, unique, and informative content at reasonably low prices.


Thesis Writing Service

Worlwide, Many Masters Students are struggling with Thesis Completion. A thesis is likely to be the longest and most challenging piece of work a student has ever completed. However, unlike essays and other assignments, a student can pick a particular interest topic and work on their initiative. Fortunately, we are there for you. At Custom Writings Help, you are assured of an authentic, imaginative, informative, linguistically great, and advantageous thesis that adheres to all your needs. So, why continue considering different writers when you have discovered the best in the field?


Custom Papers

Not a single student can avoid writing custom papers. However, a total lack of experience, skills, and time makes it very hard to produce a superb writing piece. Therefore, if you are seeking professional help, turn to us. Our specialized and experienced writers compose a variety of model papers, including custom essays, college term papers, research papers, book reports, MBA essays, executive summaries, dissertations, Ph.D. theses, admission essays, and research proposals for college and university students at any level.


Essay Writing

Most of the students disregard the critical principles of essay writing and compose papers below sensible guidelines. Therefore, with Custom Writings Help, one should not worry about his/her essay. Our Writers compose informative and engaging content on all complexities and topics. We write meaningful and smart essays while prioritizing all aspects that bring about a good grade, such as impeccable grammar, proper structure, zero-plagiarism, and conformance to guidelines.


Coourse Work Writing

Don't let the seemingly never-ending onslaught of writing assignments get you down. If you are looking where to get course work assistance online, the writers at Custom Writings Help are here to assist you with all of your writing needs. We undertake to unique delivery of papers that meet the professor's requirements. The content is proofread, edited, and checked plagiarism before submission to customers. No matter how big or small your work is, we will deliver on time. Try US Now! !


Dissertation Writing Service

High-Quality Dissertation Writing Services are rare. They require Ph.D. academicians – not easily found. However, are an exception. The years, time, and resources we have invested in the dissertation world has given us a competitive advantage over others. Choose to come to Custom Writings Help; You will find perfect Ph.D. consultants who have written hundreds of dissertations theses ready to help you. Let our dissertation-writing services help you craft your dissertation, for you are assured we will give you the results.