What sampling method or plan was used by the authors in this study?

Research Article Critique, Part Two, Version Two

Benefit to Family Members of Delivering Hand Massage with Essential Oils to Critically Ill Patients

 

(Prichard & Newcomb, 2015)

 

 Questions 1 – 9: Sample.  (For help with these questions, refer to chapters:  9 & 12)

1.  What sampling method or plan was used by the authors in this study?

            a.   Simple random sampling

            b.   Systematic sampling

            c.   Convenience sampling

            d.   Network sampling

            e.   None of the above

 

2.  According to Grove, Gray, and Burns (2015), what are the potential biases of this sampling method?

a.   This is a strong probability sampling method with very little potential for bias

b.   This method is used when an ordered list of all members of the population are available, and provides a random but not equal chance for inclusion in the study.

c.   This method provides little opportunity to control for bias because subjects are included in the study merely because they happen to be in the right place at the right time. 

d.   This method is specific to the individuals who were recruited and the information gained cannot be generalized to others who don’t share these types of experiences.

e.   None of the above biases best describe the sampling method chosen by the author.

 

3.  What was the final sample size for each group as reported by the authors for this study?

            a.  15 participants

            b.  30 participants

            c.   67 participants

            d.   80 participants

 

4.  Was a power analysis conducted?  If so, which statement best describes the results of the power analysis?

a.   The authors mention that a power analysis was conducted, and state that the low power level of 0.60 for the Cronbach alpha coefficient is a limitation of the study. 

b.   The authors mention that an a priori power analysis was conducted, and 80 subjects were

       determined to be needed for the study.

c.   The authors do not specifically report that a power analysis was conducted.

 

5.  Which of these statements would be considered to be inclusion criterion for the sample in the research article?  Select all that apply.

            a.   English and Spanish speaking

            b.   Literate

            c.   Participant > than 18 years old and pregnancy 29 or more weeks gestation

            d.   Adult family member of a patient in Trauma ICU

           

 

6.  Which of these statements would be considered to be exclusion criterion specifically identified by the author for the sample in the research article? (Select all that apply.)

           a.  There were no exclusion criteria for the acquired sample.

            b.  Participant or patient sensitivity to citrus or nuts

c.   Patient injury to both hands or catheters placed in both hands. 

d.  Participant worked on the night shift and / or had previous diagnosis of depression.

 

7.  What is the refusal rate for this study? (Hint: see page 253 in your text)

            a.   15/30  X 100% = 50%

            b.   30/67 X 100% = 44%

            c.   unknown / cannot be calculated.

            d.   0%

 

8.  Which of the following would be accurate for the attrition rate for this study?

            a.   15/30  X 100% = 50%

            b.   30/67 X 100% = 44%

            c.   unknown / cannot be calculated.

            d.   0%

 

9.   What was the setting for this research study?  Briefly describe the setting and indicate whether it was appropriate for conducting this study.

a.   The setting for this study was a partially controlled setting and was appropriate for this study’s research design.

b.   The setting for this study was a natural or field setting and was appropriate for this study’s research design.

c.   The setting for this study was a highly controlled setting and was appropriate for this study’s research design.

d.   The setting for this study was not well described by the authors and therefore not appropriate for conducting this study.

 

Question 10 – 14: Measurement Methods.  (For help with these questions, refer to chapters 10 & 12.)

10.  Which one of these questionnaires, scales, or physiologic measures is used in this research study?

            a.   The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS)

b.  The M Technique

            c.   Beck Depression Inventory (BDI)

            d.   The Quality of Life Scale (QOLS)

 

11.  How do the authors describe the CURRENT reliability of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS)? 

a.   they computed a Cronbach’s alpha on the HADS that were administered to this group of subjects.

            b.   a team of staff nurses was trained by the primary investigator to administer the questionnaire.

c.   they compared the odd and even questions on the test to determine their equivalence.

            d.   they tested the current group of subjects twice using the same questionnaire (test-retest reliability).

 

12. How do the authors describe the validity of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS)?

   a.    The authors question the validity of this tool’s cut off scores as a reflection of the unique experiences of family members of ICU patients.

            b.   evidence of validity from contrasting groups because they gave it staff nurses.

c.   The HADS demonstrates agreement with other self-report measures for anxiety and depression.

d.   The HADS was reviewed by a team of ICU nurses prior to being used in the study for content validity

 

13.   What types of questionnaires or surveys were used in this research study?  (Select all that apply.)    

               a.   The authors developed the Hospital Anxiety and Stress Scale.

            b.   The authors developed their own questions to ask about demographic information.

c.   Interviews were reportedly used, but the authors do not explain what was included in them.

d.   The authors report adding a few of their own short answer questions at the end of the demographic questionnaire.

            e.  The authors used previously developed questionnaires or surveys to measure the study variables.

f.   This study did not use any questionnaires or surveys.

 

14.   Were any physiological measurements collected from the subjects for the purpose of this study? 

            a.   Yes

            b.   No

 

Question 15- 16: Data Collection. (For help with these questions, refer to chapters 10 & 12)

 

15. Which one of the following best describes the data collection process used in this study?

            a.   questionnaires / surveys were completed via the telephone

b.   questionnaires / surveys were completed at the end of the 7 day assessment when meeting with the research team.

c.    family members were given the questionnaire on enrollment and again on the fourth day of the study.

d.   nurse researchers interviewed the family members of the intervention group to ask them their perceptions of delivering massage.

 

16.  If there were more than one data collector for the study, would an estimation of inter-rater reliability be an important concept for the authors to report on for this study?

            a.   yes, and the authors reported their efforts to achieve inter-rater reliability.     

b.   yes, but the authors do not discuss any efforts to achieve inter-rater reliability.

c.   no, the issue of inter-rater reliability does not apply here as there seems to be only one data collector.

 

 

Question 17 – 19:  Data Analysis. (For help with these questions, refer to chapters 11 & 12)

17.  What descriptive statistics are used in this study?  (Select all that apply. Hint: two answers are correct.)

            a.   mean

            b.   median

            c.   mode

            d.   standard deviation

            e.   z-scores

            f.   percentage distributions

 

18.  What inferential statistic was used to examine the data obtained from the subjects?  (Select all that apply. Hint: two answers are correct.)

            a.   Pearson Correlation Coefficient

            b.   Factor Analysis

            c.    t-Test

            d.   Chi-Square

            e.   ANCOVA

            f.   ANOVA

            g.   stepwise multiple linear regression analysis

            h.   None of the above inferential statistics were used in this study.

 

19.  What is the level of significance (alpha) set at for this study? (Hint: Is there an alpha given under the Tables or specifically mentioned in the text of the article?)

            a.   .05 or 5%

            b.   .10 or 90%

            c    .001 or 0.1%

            d.   a level of significance was not specifically mentioned by the author.

 

Question 20-25: Researcher’s Interpretation of the Findings. (For help with these questions, refer to chapters 11 & 12)

 

20.  There are several statistically significant findings in this study. Which of these statements from the article would be considered a significant and predicted result?

a.   Many families were unable to visit daily, and the research team observed that males tended to be less interested in the intervention.

b.   Anxiety scores changed with age.  Younger participants were more likely than older participants to experience relief from anxiety (r = -0.36, p < .05).

c.   Participants applied the intervention twice daily for 5 minutes per session for three consecutive days.

d.   The groups did not differ significantly with respect to change in the HADS-D scores (t = -1.69, p = .10)

21.  Which one of these statements from the article would be considered a non-significant result.

a.   Nursing staff in the trauma ICU encouraged participants to provide the usual family care.

b.   Gentle hand massage with essential oils substantially reduced the anxiety level of the family member administering the massage (t = -3.44, p = .002).

c.   Research to discover acceptability of complementary therapies to different groups and to test such interventions with unrelated but available persons would be of interest.

d.   The control and intervention groups did not differ significantly with respect to change in their feelings of depression on the HADS-D at the end of the study (t = -1.69, p = .10)

 

22.  Which one of these statements from the article would be considered clinically important?

a.   Research to discover acceptability of complementary therapies to different groups and to test such interventions with unrelated but available persons would be of interest.

b.   Many families were unable to visit daily, and the research team observed that males tended to be less interested in the intervention.

c.   This study demonstrated that a brief, inexpensive, family-delivered touch/aroma intervention is feasible in an ICU.

d.   Fifteen persons were assigned to the control group, and 15 persons were assigned to the intervention group.

 

23.  Which statements implied from the article would be considered a limitation of the study?

a.   A convenience sample of family members of patients in the Trauma ICU with a lack of randomization.

b.   Research to discover acceptability of complementary therapies to different groups and to test such interventions with unrelated but available persons would be of interest

c.   Gentle hand massage with essential oils substantially reduced the anxiety level of the family member administering the massage (t = -3.44, p = .002).

d.   Participants applied the intervention twice daily for 5 minutes per session for three consecutive days.

 

24.  Which one of these statements would be considered a statement regarding generalization of these results?

a.   The groups did not differ significantly with respect to change in the HADS-D scores (t = -1.69, p = .10).

b.   Gentle hand massage with essential oils substantially reduced the anxiety level of the family member administering the massage (t = -3.44, p = .002).

c.         A convenience sample of family members of patients in the Trauma ICU.

d.   The researchers did not make any specific generalizations to other populations.

 

 

25.  Which of these statements from the article would be considered a recommendation for future studies?

a.   Nursing staff in the trauma ICU encouraged participants to provide the usual family care.

b.   A genuine randomized, controlled trial could be informative with a relatively small sample size.

c.   This study demonstrated that a brief, inexpensive, family-delivered touch/aroma intervention is feasible in an ICU.

d.   Anxiety scores changed with age.  Younger participants were more likely than older participants to experience relief from anxiety (r = -0.36, p < .05).

 

 

 

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