Memorandum Form

Project

In this final project you are asked to make a recommendation about a program that is more likely to create an impact in given setting. The project draws upon your critical thinking skills developed during class this semester, as well as skills that you should have developed in your preceding college courses.

You will critically assess/appraise the methodological value of each of the two studies, making sure to note their measurement validity/authenticity, generalizability, and causal validity.

Once this is done, please write a 250-300 word memorandum to a supervisor (found in your topic header) and recommend the adoption of one of the two programs from the topic’s two studies.

The position that you take should not be subjectively determined but should be based on your previous analysis of the methodological value of the study. In other words, which program do you have more confidence can lead to the desired impact and apply to a population of interest?

More in-text citations are generally better (for your grade) as you assert and support your argument.

Two of your in-text citations should include the two studies that you are referencing in your topic. An in-text citation to draw from, particularly as it pertains to best practices involving measurement validity/authenticity, generalizability, and causal validity.

Specifically, you will choose one of the topics/settings listed below and read the two

empirical studies associated with each topic.

Your memorandum should contain a minimum of four in-text citations drawn from a

minimum of four separate empirical sources

1

Your memorandum should include the following parts using APA format (7th edition):

Part 1. Identify your topic

Indicate the topic you select- select only one topic from among the four topics listed below

Part 2. Take/assert a position on which program that you recommend adopting

Indicate which of the two programs that you recommend the agency to adopt, along with a short summary (two or three sentences) of the reasons why.

Part 3. Justify your position

Present a streamlined justification of the reasons explaining why you selected one program over the other.

Refer specifically to research method terminology, establishing that the program selected is in fact measuring the intended/desired outcome, that the findings represent a population of interest, and particularly that the program is the true cause of the positive impact noted; in other words, you are

If you are still unconvinced of the validity (approximate truth of an inference) of an aspect of the program you selected, please note this in your response. Being able to take a nuanced position further demonstrates that you understand the topic of the class.

Successful completion of this project is intended to demonstrate that you have a good understanding of the topics covered in class and that you can make informed recommendations based on the research you read.

In your future careers/endeavors, you are also likely to write many memorandums including on a daily basis and this is a good opportunity to understand the general format of writing a memorandum with programmatic recommendation.

Additional information about each topic

Topic 1: What would you recommend to a prison warden wanting to implement a program to reduce recidivism upon release: a dog training program or prison visitation program?

Setting: Prison
Desired Impact: Reduction in recidivism upon release Possible Programs:

  1. Dog training program
  2. Visitation program
  • Cooke, B. J., & Farrington, D. P. (2016). The effectiveness of dog-training programs in prison: A systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature. The Prison Journal, 96(6), 854-876.

noting/describing the program’s measurement validity/authenticity,

generalizability, and causal validity.

2

  • De Claire, K., &. Dixon, L. (2017). The effects of prison visits from family members on prisoners’ well-being, prison rule breaking, and recidivism: A review of research since 1991. Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, 18(2), 185-199.

Topic 2: What would you recommend to a college president wanting to reduce sexual assault on their campus: a bystander intervention program or better communication practices about their sexual misconduct policy?

Setting: College Campus
Desired Impact: Reduction in college sexual assault Possible Programs:

  1. Bystander intervention
  2. Sexual misconduct policy communication
  • Kettrey, H. H., & Marx, R. A. (2019). The effects of bystander programs on the prevention of sexual assault across the college years: A systematic review and meta- analysis. Journal of youth and adolescence, 48(2), 212-227.
  • Potter, S. J., Edwards, K. M., Banyard, V. L., Stapleton, J. G., Demers, J. M., & Moynihan, M. M. (2016). Conveying campus sexual misconduct policy information to college and university students: Results from a 7-campus study. Journal of American College Health, 64(6), 438-447.

Topic 3: What would you recommend to a police chief wanting to reduce crime in their community: problem-oriented policing or stop-and-frisk policy?

Setting: Police and Community
Desired Impact: Reduction in crime in community Possible Programs:

    1. Problem-oriented policing
    2. Stop-and-Frisk policy
  • Weisburd, D., Telep, C. W., Hinkle, J. C., & Eck, J. E. (2010). Is problem-oriented policing effective in reducing crime and disorder? Findings from a Campbell systematic review. Criminology & Public Policy, 9(1), 139-172.
  • Ferrandino, J. A. (2018). The effectiveness and equity of NYPD stop and frisk policy, 2003-2014. Journal of Crime and Justice, 41(2), 119-135.

Topic 4: What would you recommend to a police chief wanting to reduce the number of complaints they receive from the public: implement body-worn cameras or an early intervention system?

Setting: Internal Police Department
Desired Impact: Reduction in complaints against police officers Possible Programs:

3

  1. Body-worn cameras
  2. Early intervention
  • Jenning, W. G., Lynch, M. D., & Fridell, L. A. (2015). Evaluating the impact of police officer body-worn cameras (BWCs) on response-to-resistance and serious external complaints: Evidence from the Orlando police department (OPD) experience utilizing a randomized controlled experiment. Journal of Criminal Justice, 43(6), 480-486.
  • Shjarback, J. A. (2015). Emerging early intervention systems: An agency-specific pre- post comparison of formal citizen complaints of use of force. Policing: A Journal of Policy and Practice, 9(4), 314-325.

 

4

Grading Rubric:

Paper Grading Rubric:
Between 250-300 words (maximum 300 words); Double-spaced 12pt font;
Times or Times New Roman;
APA style format (7th edition);
NO Title Page or Reference Page

; more in-text citations are generally better (for your grade) as you assert and support your argument.

Two of your in-text citations should include the two studies that you are referencing in your topic.

THIS PROJECT is in Memorandum Form  Memorandum

To: [Audience]-

From: [Person and/or Department issuing the memo]-This is you-identify yourself Date: [Date Sent]-place the date of your memorandum in this location
Subject: [Subject of the Memo]-

Your memo should include the following parts using with appropriate

in-text citations:
Part 1. Identify your topic-select only ONE topic from among the four topics

Indicate the topic you select.

Part 2. Take position on which program you recommend adopting

Indicate which of the two programs you recommend the agency to adopt, along with a short summary (two or three sentences) of the reasons why.

Part 3. Justify your position

Present a streamlined justification of the reasons explaining why you selected one program over the other.

Refer specifically to research method terminology, establishing that the program selected is in fact measuring the intended/desired outcome, that the findings represent a population of interest, and particularly that the program is the true cause of the positive impact noted; in other words, you are

If you are still unconvinced of the validity (approximate truth of an inference) of an aspect of the program you selected, please note this in your response. Being able to take a nuanced position further demonstrates that you understand the topic of the class.

CC: [Send copies to anyone affected by the memo.]

You (student) need to address this to the appropriate person (see your

topic-is the person a Chief, College President, Prison Warden, etc?)

Place the subject of your memorandum here-perhaps the

program that you are recommending . . .

APA format (7th edition)

noting/describing the program’s measurement validity/authenticity,

generalizability, and causal validity.

 

 

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