Investment banking is increasingly becoming an important of the modern economy due to the need to raise and utilise capital efficiently towards increased returns to the individuals or companies acquiring assets or starting business ventures (Morrison and Wilhelm Jr, 2019). Many companies are interested in raising capital through stocks and bonds and thus investment bankers play a vital role in ensuring maximum revenues within the stipulated regulatory framework. Some of the examples of the functions of investment banks include underwriting that entails selling and packaging security on behalf of an entity as well as being financial advisors for institutions and facilitate mergers and corporate reorganizations (Tang, 2019). While investment banking is essential in the adoption of the best way to raise funds through a legally accepted approach, the process is associated with various risks and rewards
The rewards include increased access to capital that can enable the growth of businesses through elements like asset acquisition or funding of operations like sales, marketing, and research and design. Access to capital is also essential in the enhancement of a business’ competitiveness through superior product delivery and acquisition of unique competencies (Stowell, 2017). On the other hand, examples of risks in investment banking can be categorised in levels as macro, industrial, exterior, and corporate levels. The identified categories are based on the sources of risks as well as the coverage of the extent of their impact (Tang, 2019).
The management of potential risks in investment banking is vital in ensuring that the possible loss of funds is prevented (Morrison and Wilhelm Jr, 2019). On the same note, the risk management exercise is undertaken to ensure that maximum returns are obtained in the process involved in raising the capital. The risk of investment occurs since the value of the capital or asset can rise or fall and thereby necessitating the adoption of the appropriate strategies to prevent the possible loss. The loss in value of the investment due to the market and economic conditions is a significant risk requiring the adoption of specific strategies and techniques to cushion the investors against the potential shocks (Stowell, 2017). The purpose of this study is to investigate some of the practices that are used in the management of risks while focusing on the case of the Royal Bank of Scotland (RBS).
The main of this study is to outline the various risk management practices that are used in modern investment banking while focusing on the case of RBS. The specific objectives that are pursued in the study therefore include:
The proposed study seeks to answer the question regarding the specific management practices that are implemented by investment banks to manage risks. The research questions that are related to the objectives are:
Risk management is a significant element in any business due to the vital role in the protection of the entity from the potential loss of assets (Morrison and Wilhelm Jr, 2019). A study of the risk management practices that are adopted by a institution is therefore essential in presenting the strategies that are used in the investment banking industry to mitigate the unfavourable events in the operations of the organization. Additionally, the findings of this research will be vital in contributing to the literature regarding the practices that can be implemented by the investment banks to mitigate the risks to which they are exposed.
The literature review section provides an analysis of the existing studies regarding the various types of risks that exist in modern investment banking as well as the associated risk management practices. The section outlines the conceptual framework adopted towards understanding the topic followed by a thematic review of the key elements associated with the selected studies that encompass risk management in modern investment banking.
The proposed study will mainly use the concept of financial risk management towards answering the research questions. According to Valaskova, Kliestik, and Kovacova (2018), financial risk management entails the process of identifying, analysing, and accepting or mitigating the uncertainty of investment decisions. Similarly, Moles (2016) outlines that the financial risk management process involves the attempts by the business leaders to quantify or measure the potential risks associated with a management decision and hence take appropriate mitigation measures.
As a holistic process, Moles (2016) outlines that financial risk management is undertaken through various models. An example of a risk management model entails the consideration of a five-step process that includes risk identification, qualitative risk analysis, quantitative risk assessment, risk response planning, and risk monitoring and control. Despite the importance of risk management models in the understanding of how risks occur and how they can be mitigated, Moles (2016) observes that a major disadvantage is based on the fact that there is no standard model that can be used in understanding and mitigating all the types of risks that are associated with the financial investment decisions. The other common approaches to risk modelling include statistical, computational, and mathematical that form the basis of a quantitative approach to the analysis of risks (De Rocquigny, 2012). The statistical modelling can be undertaken even in cases that the causes of risks are not known such as in the establishment of the correlation between the risks such as price volatility and other variables.
Zopounidis, Doumpos, and Kosmidou (2018) further highlight that financial modelling is used as strategies for risk management due to the ability of the models to provide a representation of the financial conditions in the real world. On the same note, Chan and Wong (2015) assert that the financial modelling techniques are critical towards the definition of risks since the process of risk management entails the determination of the relationship between the outcomes of an investment decision. The modelling process thus entails the determination of the probability that a negative outcome (risk) will occur while the overall risk is obtained from multiplying the associated monetary impact and the probability (Chan and Wong, 2015). The equation below can be used in the definition of risk from a financial modelling perspective.
Inadequate risk management practices can lead to negative consequences on businesses, economies, and individual investors. For instance, the subprime mortgage meltdown in 2007 was associated with inadequate risk management measures that resulted in the financial recession starting in 2008 (Aebi, Sabato, and Schmid, 2012). Some of the poor risk management decisions that were associated with the mortgage meltdown include the lenders providing mortgages to people with poor credit history as well as the investment entities that bought, package, and resold the mortgages (Aebi, Sabato, and Schmid, 2012). A proper risk management strategy should be part of an investment bank’s daily operations and should determine how the organisation function to avoid possible financial losses. Similarly, the implementation of a risk management strategy is essential in assisting the businesses to mitigate the fact that risks always exist in the organization’s operations even in instances when normalcy is presumed.
Morrison and Wilhelm Jr (2015) assert that the management of risks in the modern investment banking is not only a vital element in ensuring that the businesses comply with the regulatory framework but also for maintaining a commitment to the customers. The commitment to the customers also reflects the financial institutions’ efforts to address the concerns of the investors regarding the potential deviation from the expected outcomes and the associated losses. Consequently, measures such as value at risk (VAR) is used by organisations to determine the returns available to the investors in the instances of negative deviation (Stowell, 2017). The commitment to managing risks while safeguarding the investors’ or customers’ therefore forms the basis for decision-making for the prospective customers. Apart from reducing the chances of the loss of capital, the risk management strategies also enhance the
We value our customers and so we ensure that what we do is 100% original..
At Custom Writing, we believe in exemplary services that are fully geared toward customer satisfaction. That is why we don’t shy away from giving you the following guarantees;
Trusting us with your work is the best decision you have made, our pleasure lies in seeing you satisfied at 100%. If in the rear chance it happens that you are not satisfied, then know that we will equally not be satisfied. But worry not, our 30 days- Money back guarantee is all you need and that is what we promise you..Read more
We utilize profoundly equipped and gifted writers who produce unique papers liberated from any form of plagiarism. To guarantee this, we run all papers finished by our scholars through a Plagiarism checker to ensure uniqueness and originality. In any case, on the off chance that you have vulnerabilities about the originality or falsification of any paper we have finished and conveyed to you, please get in touch with us straight away. We will quickly investigate, and if the paper is seen as counterfeited, we will take suitable actions including but not limited to, revising the paper for free and in extreme cases we will activate the money back guarantee.Read more
We have an obligation deliver great and specially composed assignments. Our revision strategy endeavors to ensure total client satisfaction, comfort, and a genuine feelings of serenity. We make minor updates and corrections to the underlying request as part of our continuous assistance. However, revisions should just incorporate changes and alterations that were not effectively met, in the underlying request and that are inside the rules as per the current request structure..Read more
Our client's Data is an Integral part of our business but clearly, we are not in the business of offering our clients' very own data to others. We realize that you care how your online data is utilized and shared, we equally value your trust that we will do so cautiously and sensibly. We Promise to ensure the security of your own data during transmission by utilizing encryption conventions and programming. Likewise assist us with securing your information by not sharing your passwords and usernames.Read more
In submitting a request with us, you consent to the services we give. We will strive to take the necessary steps to convey a far reaching paper according to your prerequisites. Equally we depend on your cooperation to guarantee that we convey on this order.Read more