Neurologic System, Quality Patient Records

Discussion Topic

Discuss the three types of reflexes. Examine the five components of the deep tendon reflex.

Discuss the many ways the aging process affects the brain. Examine how good health practices can mitigate these losses.

Discuss the major modifiable risk factors for stroke.

 

 

The three types of reflexes are stretch or/deep tendon reflexes,  superficial and visceral reflexes. Examples given for stretch or/deep tendon reflex is the knee jerk reaction when the patellar tendon is activated by the reflex hammer. The example for superficial reflex is the plantar reflex which stimulated by using a blunt instrument on the sole of the foot. The visceral reflex example is pupillary response to light and accommodation where the iris controls the amount of light entering the eye contracts or relaxes. The five components of the deep tendon reflex include (1) an intact sensory nerve (afferent), (2) a functional synapse in the cord, (3) an intact motor nerve fiber (efferent), (4) the neuromuscular junction, and (5) a competent muscle. (Jarvis, 2020)

Aging process decreases the size of the brain and neuron structure. This can cause changes including how they do small tasks and their gait. A study done by Mirelman in 2017 showed that there is more prefrontal brain activation in doing medial tasks in older adults than in those who are younger. They noticed that the more activation in the prefrontal cortex lead to more gait instability. Results show that older adults rely on more cognitive resources in tasks including walking. Those with good health walk similarly to their younger years.

Major modifiable risks for stroke prevention include blood pressure, cigarette smoking and heart disorders. High blood pressure can be controlled with exercise or blood pressure medication. Smoking cigarette and vape pens are linked to building up plaque in arteries that increases risk of stroke. Smoking cessation programs should be encouraged if patient is ready to change. Heart disorders also increase the risk so patient teaching of regular checkups are very important to detect any changes from the heart.

Brendan Li

References:

  1. Jarvis, C. Physical Examination and Health Assessment. [VitalSource Bookshelf]. Retrieved from https://bookshelf.vitalsource.com/#/books/9780323510806/(Links to an external site.)
  2. Mirelman, A., Maidan, I., Bernad-Elazari, H., Shustack, S., Giladi, N., & Hausdorff, J. M. (2017). Effects of aging on prefrontal brain activation during challenging walking conditions. Brain and cognition115, 41-46.

 

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Post 2

Discussion Topic

Discuss the three types of reflexes. Examine the five components of the deep tendon reflex.

Discuss the many ways the aging process affects the brain. Examine how good health practices can mitigate these losses.

Discuss the major modifiable risk factors for stroke.

 

Discuss the three types of reflexes. Examine the five components of the deep tendon reflex.

Three types of reflexes are, stretch or/deep tendon reflexes, superficial reflexes, and visceral reflexes (Jarvis, 2020, p. 630). Stretch or deep tendon reflexes are a special type of muscle reflex that protects the muscle against increases in length which may tear or damage muscle fibers. Stretch reflexes are very important in maintaining our upright posture. The patellar reflex is one of the examples of the stretch reflex. Flexion of toes and plantar flexion of foot is a plantar reflex which is an example of a superficial (cutaneous) reflex. Pupillary response to light and accommodation is an example of a visceral (organic) reflex (Jarvis, 2020. P. 630).

The five components of the deep tendon reflex are “intact sensory nerve (afferent), functional synapse in the cord, intact motor nerve fiber (efferent), the neurotransmitter junction, and component muscle” (Jarvis, 2020, p. 631). The sensory (afferent) neuron conducts nerve impulses along an afferent pathway towards the central nervous system (CNS) and a  motor (efferent) neuron conducts a nerve impulse along an efferent pathway from the integration center to an effector (Jarvis, 2020, p. 629).

 

Discuss the many ways the aging process affects the brain. Examine how good health practices can mitigate these losses.

The volume of the frontal and temporal lobes decreases with age. “Aging has wide-ranging effects on cells, molecules, and cognition, as well as on brain volume”( Bajaj, Alkozei, Dailey, & Killgore, 2017). The basic cognitive functions such as attention, memory, and perception are most affected by age. “Aging process causes general atrophy with a steady loss of neurons structure in the brain and spinal cord” (Jarvis, 2020, p. 633). The brain generates less chemical messengers with age which are dopamine, acetylcholine, serotonin, and norepinephrine. As a result of the decrease of these chemical messengers, there is a decline in cognition, memory, and increased risk of depression. Good health practices can mitigate these losses. By stimulating the brain with mental training, meditation, virtual reality/games can help in mitigating these loses.

Discuss the major modifiable risk factors for stroke.

According to the article, the modifiable risk factors for stroke are, “ high blood pressure (hypertension), high cholesterol (hyperlipidemia), irregular pulse (atrial fibrillation), TIA, high blood glucose (diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and overweight” ( Peng, Lauche, Ferguson, Frawley, Adams, & Sibbritt, 2017). Among all of these risk factors, hypertension is the most important modifiable risk factor for stroke. Smoking is the other modifiable risk factor for stroke (Jarvis,2020, p.666). Smoking cessation is an effective measure to reduce stroke risk. There are several options which are available for smoking cessation. For example,  counseling, nicotine replacement, and bupropion. Lifestyle change which includes a diet with more fruits and vegetables,  consuming less salt, weight loss, and physical activity can help in minimizing the risk of stroke.

Reference:

Bajaj, S., Alkozei, A., Dailey, N. S., & Killgore, W. D. S. (2017). Brain aging: Uncovering cortical characteristics of healthy aging in young adults. Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience, doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnagi.2017.00412 (Links to an external site.)

Jarvis, C. (2020). Physical examination & health assessment. (8th ed.). St. Louis, Missouri: Elsevier.

Peng, W., Lauche, R., Ferguson, C., Frawley, J., Adams, J., & Sibbritt, D. (2017). Efficacy of Chinese herbal medicine for stroke modifiable risk factors: A systematic review. Chinese Medicine, 12 doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13020-017-0146-9

 

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