1. Choose 4 of the following and write concrete definitions for each. They must be specific to the term for this period. (10 points each)
The Enlightenment Liberalism “Arguments from Authority”
John Locke Philosophes
2. Read the below and answer the questions associated with each. (30 points Each)
What Is Enlightenment? (1784)
Enlightenment is man’s emergence from his self-imposed nonage. Nonage is the inability to use one’s own understanding without another’s guidance. This nonage is self-imposed if its cause lies not in lack of understanding but in indecision and lack of courage to use one’s own mind without another’s guidance. Dare to know! (Sapere aude.) “Have the courage to use your own understanding,” is therefore the motto of the enlightenment.
Laziness and cowardice are the reasons why such a large part of mankind gladly remain minors all their lives, long after nature has freed them from external guidance. They are the reasons why it is so easy for others to set themselves up as guardians. It is so comfortable to be a minor. If I have a book that thinks for me, a pastor who acts as my conscience, a physician who prescribes my diet, and so on–then I have no need to exert myself. I have no need to think, if only I can pay; others will take care of that disagreeable business for me.
According to Kant, what is Enlightenment and why do so many people not achieve it? 150 words
3. Answer the following: How did the Enlightenment change the relation of the individual to the older powers of society? (150 words) (30 Points)
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