Describe the pathophysiology involved in Acute Renal Failure (ARF) including any biochemical changes.

Response 2

This response should consider the points raised by the person, ADD FURTHER INFORMATION TO THE TOPIC (correct answer to the Question):


Describe the pathophysiology involved in Acute Renal Failure (ARF) including any biochemical changes.


Someone else`s answer:

Acute kidney injury (AKI) can be due to pre-renal, intrinsic, and post-renal pathology (Aitken, Marshall, and Chaboyer, 2019. Prerenal is due to hypoperfusion such as hypovolaemia and hypotension/shock; if persists leads to cell hunger and eventually death- causing intrinsic kidney injury (Aitken, Marshall, and Chaboyer, 2019). Intrinsic causes are mainly due to inflammation, infection, nephrotoxic substances, any vascular thrombus obstruction (Aitken, Marshall, and Chaboyer, 2019). The most common cause of intrinsic renal failure is acute tubular necrosis (ATN) (Aitken, Marshall, and Chaoyer, 2019). Cellular injury and dysfunction resulting in diminished glomerular filtration rate (GFR) occur when renal blood flow is decreased and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is depleted. Postrenal is the least common cause of AKI; and is due to obstruction causing increase intraluminal pressure causing decreased GFR (Makris and Spanou, 2016). Reduced GFR and decreased urine output lead to accumulation of urea, creatinine, potassium, and other toxins which in turn complicates other organ systems (Aitken, Marshall, and Chaboyer, 2019).


Aitken, L, Marshall, A & Chaboyer, W 2019, Critical Care Nursing, 4th edn, Elsevier, Australia pp.621-625

Makris, K., & Spanou, L. (2016). Acute Kidney Injury: Definition, Pathophydiology and Clinical Phenotypes. The Clinical biochemist. Reviews, 37(2), 85-98.

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