Lesson 8
1. The chief aim of sampling is to be able to select
simple random samples
a sample whose statistics will accurately portray an unknown population parameter
a sample whose parameters will accurately portray an unknown population statistic
a sample whose statistics will accurately portray a known population parameter
a sample whose unknown statistics will accurately portray a know parameter
2. A study population is
the theoretical and hypothetical aggregation of all elements as defined for a given survey
the theoretically specified aggregation of survey elements
that aggregation of elements from which the sample is actually selected
that aggregation or set of elements considered for selection in some stage of sampling
that aggregation of elements from which information is collected
3. The unit about which information is collected and that provides the basis of analysis is called a(n)
universe
sampling unit
statistic
sampling frame
element
4. In a situation of perfect homogeneity there is little need to be concerned with careful sampling procedures.
Ture
False
5. The size of the population must be taken into account when deciding on sample size.
True
False
6. Non probability sampling
always produces samples that possess distorted characteristics relative to the population
denies the researche the use of statistical theory to estimate the probability of correct inferences
should never be used under any circumstances
includes stratified sampling
requires the use of sampling frames
7. Sample all the students in your research methods class. What kind of sampling design are you using?
simple random sampling
quota sampling
cluster sampling
stratified sampling
reliance on available subjects
8. Drawing a judgemental sample
allows researchers to use their prior knowledge about the topic.
Enlists the aid of uninformed respondents
Results in a sample that has no researcher bias
Ensures a representative sample.
Requires the development of a quota matrix
9. If a field researcher wanted to learn a political organization’s pattern of recruitment over time, the researcher might begin by interviewing a fairly recent recruit and ask who introdused that person to the organization. Then the researcher might interview the person named and ask who introduced that person to the political organization. This would be an example of
snowball sampling.
Systematic sampling
Deviant cases sampling
Accidental sampling
Quota sampling’
10. Professor Hall was planning to do a field study of hitchhikers. Hall wanted to be sure that persons representing all different age, racial, and sex categories were included in the sample of hitchhikers. What kind of sampling scheme would you recommend?
deviant cases.
Quota sampling
Stratified sampling
Snowball sampling
Cluter sampling
11. A researcher discovers that in a particular city 10% of the households are headed by a single person and that 90% of the families are husband-wife families. The researcher sends out interviewers an tells them to conduct 80 interviews and that 10% of these interviews should be with families that are headed by a single person, and 90% should be with husband-wife families. This researcher is using
simple random sampling
quota sampling
cluster sampling
stratified sampling
accidental sampling
12. In general, as sample size increases
the standard error increases in size
the standard error decreases in size
the standard error will remain the same regardless of changes in sample size
the standard error is a constant
the standard error fluctuates in size
13. Sampling error is reduced through an increase in the sample size and an increased homogeneity of the elements being sampled.
True
False
14. Probability samples are advantageous to the researcher because
the method by which they are selected limits consious and unconscious sampling bias
the accuracy or representativeness of the sample can be estimated
they are perfectly representative of the population from which they are drawn
all of these choices indicate the advantages of probability sampling
the method by which they are selected limits conscious and unconscious sampling bias and the accuracy or representativenes of the sample can be estimated
15. A summary description of a given variable in a survey sample is called a
variable
parameter
confidence level
confidence interval
statistic
16. If two samples of the same size are drawn from the same population using simple random sampling, it follows that they will have the same statistics.
True
False
17. Generally, the more heterogeneous the population, the more beneficial it is to use stratified sampling.
True
False
18. Stratification represnets a modification to rather than an alternative to simple random sampling and systematic sampling.
True
False
19. A stratified sample is more likely to be representative on several variables than is a simple random sample.
True
False
20. You want to select a sample of 250 people from a population of 30,000. To use the table of random numbers you need to work with a
250 digit number
3- digit number
4- digit number
5- digit number
6- digit number
21. A sampling interval of 5 was used to select a sample from a population of 1000. How many elements are to be in the sample?
5
50
100
200
1000
22. Every kth element in a list is chosen for inclusion in the sample in
simple random sampling
systematic sampling
disproportionate sampling
cluster sampling
stratified sampling
23. Periodicity is particularly important in
Simple random sampling
Availability sampling
Stratified sampling
Quota sampling
Systematic sampling
24. You are doing research on hospital personnel-orderlies, technicians, nurses, and doctors. You want to be sure you draw a sample that has cases in each of the personnel categories. You want to use probability sampling/ An appropriate strategy would be
simple random sampling
quota sampling
cluster sampling
stratified sampling
accidental sampling
25. Stratifying a population prior to drawing a sample
generally occurs when the variables used to stratify are known to be associated with the dependent variable
eliminates the need for simple random sampling
is most useful for studying a homogeneous population
eliminates the need for probabiity sampling
is an alternative systematic sampling
26. A disadvantage of stratified sampling is that it
denies you the use of probability theory
requires you to have some prior knowledge about the elements in the population prior to drawing the sample
usually increases the standard error
usually requires samples that are larger in size than those required by simple random sampling
none of these choices is a disadvantage of stratified sampling
27. Multistage sampling design tend to have smaller sampling errors than single-stage sampling designs..
True
False
28. To ensure a sufficient number of cases from strata of varying sizes, researchers use.
simple random sampling
systematic sampling
proportionate sampling
disproportionate sampling
quota sampling
29. Disproportionate sampling and weighting are used by the researcher
to ensure a sufficient number of cases in each of the sample subpopulations
to give a proportionate representation to each sample element
to procide a representative picture of the total population
to handle situations involving the errors and approximation that are often inherent in complex, multistage designs
all of these choices are correct
30. Professor Alec O. Howlick is studying the incoming (freshmen) student drinking behavior at Boozemen State University in Boozemen, Kansas. Every incoming freshmen is required to have a university email address. After obtaining a list of all incoming freshmen students email addresses, he numbered every email address from 1 to 4,000. Using a random-number table, he obtained a sample of 200 freshman email addresses. He then emailed students requesting them to take an online survey. He also had two follow-up email reminders. A total of 180 students took the online survey.
(1) What is Howlick’s sampling frame?
a. the drinking behavior of students
b. incoming freshmen telephone numbers
c. student freshmen email addresses
d. Boozemen State University
(2) What is Drunkman’s population?
a. all students living in Boozemen, Kansas
b. all students enrolled in Boozemen State University
c. students who drink alcohol in Boozemen, Kansas
d. all incoming freshmen at Boozemen State University
(3) What type of sampling did Professor Howlick use?
a. stratified random sample
b. simple random sample
c. cluster sample
d. sequential sample
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