Qualitative field research and ethics

 

Forum Question: Select from one of the two sets of questions (Paradigms and the Belmont Report)

1) Paradigms

Identify a sociological topic of interest to you.  Access the “Common Paradigms” link.

Discuss how three (3) of the specific qualitative research paradigms could be used to study this topic.

Are some paradigms better suited for certain topics?  

Which paradigm(s) raise the biggest ethical concerns?

2) Belmont Report – Access the Belmont link in the course material

Explain what led to the creation of the Belmont Report?

What are the ethical considerations in research?

Explain the three principles of ethics?

 THE 

BELMONT REPORT

Ethical Principles and Guidelines for the Protection of Human Subjects of Research

The Belmont Report was written by the National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research. The Commission, created as a result of the National Research Act of 1974, was charged with identifying the basic ethical principles that should underlie the conduct of biomedical and behavioral research involving human subjects and developing guidelines to assure that such research is conducted in accordance with those principles. Informed by monthly discussions that spanned nearly four years and an intensive four days of deliberation in 1976, the Commission published the Belmont Report, which identifies basic ethical principles and guidelines that address ethical issues arising from the conduct of research with human subjects.

Read the Belmont ReportREAD THE BELMONT REPORT

Read the full text of the Belmont Report

Watch a videoWATCH A VIDEO ABOUT THE BELMONT REPORT

This video describes the basic ethical principles that underlie research involving human subjects and demonstrates how they can help resolve ethical conflicts in research

View interviewsVIEW 25th ANNIVERSARY INTERVIEWS

This collection of videos includes interviews with members and staff of the National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research from the 25th anniversary of publication in 2004

Access other reportsREAD OTHER REPORTS BY THE NATIONAL COMMISSION

Explore a compilation of related reports published by the National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research between 1974 and 1978

HHS and OHRPProtecting Human Subjects in ResearchContent created by Office for Human Research Protections
Content last reviewed on March 15, 2016
 

Common Paradigms

Qualitative and Quantitative Methods

Qualitative and quantitative approaches are rooted in philosophical traditions with different epistemological and ontological assumptions.

Epistemology – is the theory of knowledge and the assumptions and beliefs that we have about the nature of knowledge.  How do we know the world? What is the relationship between the inquirer and the known?

Ontology – concerns the philosphy of existence and the assumptions and beliefs that we hold about the nature of being and existence.

Paradigms – models or frameworks that are derived from a worldview or belief system about the nature of knowledge and existence. Paradigms are shared by a scientific community and guide how a community of researchers act with regard to inquiry.

Methodology – how we gain knowledge about the world or “an articulated, theoretically informed approach to the production of data” (Ellen, 1984, p. 9).

Five Common Paradigms

Most qualitative research emerges from the ‘interpretivist’ paradigm. 

While we describe the epistemological, ontological and methodological underpinnings of a variety of paradigms, one need not identify with a paradigm when doing qualitative research.

As Bryman (2004) articulates (see chapter 1) the tension between interpretivist and positivist approaches in a political debate about the nature, importance and capacity of different research methods.

Up until the 1960s, the ‘scientific method’ was the predominant approach to social inquiry, with little attention given to qualitative approaches such as participant observation.

In response to this, a number of scholars across disciplines began to argue against the centrality of the scientific method.  They argued that quantitiative approaches might be appropriate for studying the physical and natural world, they were not appropriate when the object of study was people.  Qualitative approaches were better suited to social inquiry. 

To understand the tension between paradigms one must understand that this tension – the either or approach that emerged in the context of a debate about the capacity and importance of qualitative methods.  

Byrman and others, most recently Morgan (2007), argue for a more pragmatic approach; one that is disentrangled from the entrapments of this paradigm debate, one that recognizes the ties or themes that connect quantitative and qualitative research, and one that sees the benefits of blending quantitative and qualitative methods.

Assumptions and beliefs of the Interpretivist paradigm

Assumptions and beliefs of the Positivist paradigm

Assumptions of the Critical or Subtle Realist paradigm

Assumptions of Critical Theory paradigms

Assumptions of Feminist paradigms

Bryman, A. (2004). Quantity and Quality in Social Research.  London: Routledge.  First published in 1988.

Ellen, RF. (1984). Introduction. In RF Ellen (Ed.), Ethnographic Research: A guide to general conduct (research methods in social anthropology) (pp. 1-12). London: Academic Press.

Morgan, DL. (2007). Paradigms lost and paradigms regained. Journal of Mixed Methods Research. 1(1), 48-76.

© RWJF 2008
P.O. Box 2316 College Road East and Route 1
Princeton, NJ 08543

Citation: Cohen D, Crabtree B. “Qualitative Research Guidelines Project.” July 2006. http://www.qualres.org/HomePhil-3514.html

 

Order a unique copy of this paper
(550 words)

Approximate price: $22

Basic features
  • Free title page and bibliography
  • Unlimited revisions
  • Plagiarism-free guarantee
  • Money-back guarantee
  • 24/7 support
On-demand options
  • Writer’s samples
  • Part-by-part delivery
  • Overnight delivery
  • Copies of used sources
  • Expert Proofreading
Paper format
  • 275 words per page
  • 12 pt Arial/Times New Roman
  • Double line spacing
  • Any citation style (APA, MLA, Chicago/Turabian, Harvard)

Our guarantees

We value our customers and so we ensure that what we do is 100% original..
At Custom Writing, we believe in exemplary services that are fully geared toward customer satisfaction. That is why we don’t shy away from giving you the following guarantees;

Money-back guarantee

Trusting us with your work is the best decision you have made, our pleasure lies in seeing you satisfied at 100%. If in the rear chance it happens that you are not satisfied, then know that we will equally not be satisfied. But worry not, our 30 days- Money back guarantee is all you need and that is what we promise you..

Read more

Zero-plagiarism guarantee

We utilize profoundly equipped and gifted writers who produce unique papers liberated from any form of plagiarism. To guarantee this, we run all papers finished by our scholars through a Plagiarism checker to ensure uniqueness and originality. In any case, on the off chance that you have vulnerabilities about the originality or falsification of any paper we have finished and conveyed to you, please get in touch with us straight away. We will quickly investigate, and if the paper is seen as counterfeited, we will take suitable actions including but not limited to, revising the paper for free and in extreme cases we will activate the money back guarantee.

Read more

Free-revision policy

We have an obligation deliver great and specially composed assignments. Our revision strategy endeavors to ensure total client satisfaction, comfort, and a genuine feelings of serenity. We make minor updates and corrections to the underlying request as part of our continuous assistance. However, revisions should just incorporate changes and alterations that were not effectively met, in the underlying request and that are inside the rules as per the current request structure..

Read more

Privacy policy

Our client's Data is an Integral part of our business but clearly, we are not in the business of offering our clients' very own data to others. We realize that you care how your online data is utilized and shared, we equally value your trust that we will do so cautiously and sensibly. We Promise to ensure the security of your own data during transmission by utilizing encryption conventions and programming. Likewise assist us with securing your information by not sharing your passwords and usernames.

Read more

Fair-cooperation guarantee

In submitting a request with us, you consent to the services we give. We will strive to take the necessary steps to convey a far reaching paper according to your prerequisites. Equally we depend on your cooperation to guarantee that we convey on this order.

Read more

Calculate the price of your order

550 words
We'll send you the first draft for approval by September 11, 2018 at 10:52 AM
Total price:
$26
The price is based on these factors:
Academic level
Number of pages
Urgency