Read Iliad 4.131-172 (lines 131-172 of Book 4). Answer the questions about it below. Your answers should be brief and concise – a paragraph (half a page, double-spaced) at most. You may have to do some online research to answer some of the questions. 24 marks.
But the blessed gods did not
forget you, my Menelaos! Above all, the booty-bringing
daughter of Zeus, who stood before you and brushed
aside the piercing shaft. Why, Athena brushed away the arrow
from the flesh as a mother brushes aside a fly from her child 135
when he lies in sweet sleep. She directed it to where the golden
clasps of the belt were fastened and the chest-protector doubled.
The bitter arrow fell on the clasp and was driven through
the fancy belt, and through the highly worked chest-protector
and the belly-protector too, which he wore as a screen and guard 140
for his flesh against any arrow, a main line of defense.
Yet even through this the arrow pierced and scratched
the outermost flesh of the man. Immediately the dark blood
flowed from the wound. It was as if when a woman from Maeonia
or Caria stains ivory with Phoenician scarlet to be a cheek-piece 145
for horses. It lies in a chamber, though many horsemen
pray that they can wear it—a delight for the king,
both a decoration for his horse and a boast for the driver—
like that, my Menelaos, were your handsome thighs stained
and your legs and the beautiful ankles beneath. 150
the king of men, shivered when he saw the black blood
run down from the wound. The warrior Menelaos shivered
too. But when he saw that the sinew and the barbs were outside
the flesh, then his breath-soul was gathered back into his breast.
With a heavy moan King Agamemnon spoke, holding 155
Menelaos by the hand, and his companions moaned too:
Dear brother, it is your death I swore with the oath and sacrifice,
setting you out alone before the Achaeans to fight with
the Trojans. Now the Trojans have shot you and trampled
down the trust-oaths! But not for nothing are oath and the blood 160
of lambs and the drink offerings of unmixed wine, and handshakes
in which we place our trust. Even if at the moment the Olympian
does not bring all to fulfillment, in the end he does,
and that man pays a heavy price not only with his own life
but with the lives of his wife and children. For I know 165
this in my heart and soul: The day will come
when sacred Ilion will be destroyed and Priam
and the people of Priam with their fine ash spears.
Zeus, Kronos’ son, from his high throne, dwelling
in the upper air, will shake his dark goatskin fetish over all, 170
furious because of this deception. Surely these things
will come to pass.
Part 2 – Answer 2 of the following 4 questions. Here you are required to find examples in the Iliad itself. If you are using the translation by Powell or Lattimore, you can site passages by book and line numbers (i.e. 4.131-172). If you are using a different translation, please quote the first line of the passage as well. Your answers here should again be brief and concise. 16 marks.
Part III – Brief Description or definition. 15 marks.
Part IV – Provide a brief character sketch of the following people or gods appearing in the Iliad, based on what you have learned about them so far. 20 marks.
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